School of Tibetan Buddhism
Founded by Atisa and passed on lineages to disciples
Famous and respected for their earnest dharma practice
Founded in 1447 by the 1st Dalai Lama
Historically and culturally important to Shigatse (2nd largest city)
Monastery was sacked in 1791
The traditional temporal head and spiritual leader of the Gelug/ “yellow hat” school. revered by Tibetan Buddhists as the living incarnation of the bodhisattva of compassion.
Sakya/ Sakya school
Founded by contemporary of Atesha
Had enormous power in 12-13th centuries
Passed onto Drokmis son
Especially interested in matters of Buddhist logic
Khubilai Khan (1294)
The grandson of Genghis Khan, the founder of the Mongol Empire, Kublai Khan was the fifth Great Khan of the Mongol Empire (1260-1294) and the founder of the Yuan Dynasty in China. He assumed the title emperor of China, and his conquest of South China’s Song Dynasty was the last step in the Mongols’ efforts to rule China wholly.
usually taken to mean “the Man from Onion Valley”, was a famous teacher of Tibetan Buddhism whose activities led to the formation of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism.
Kagyu/ Kagyo school
Traces origins to Marpa
The “six dharmas of Naropa” transmitted to Marpa, who brought them to Tibet
The six teachings include:
1) production of inner heat
2) everyone’s body as illusory
3) dream state
4) clear light perception
5) the in- between/ rebirth state
6) consciousness transference
The six dharmas of Naropa lead to the attainment of supernormal powers known as siddhi
(1235 – 15 December 1280), was the fifth leader of the Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism. He was also the guru and spiritual advisor to Kublai Khan, ruler of the Mongol Empire and the Yuan dynasty.
Ganden Phodrang (Ganden Palace) government / regime
was the Tibetan regime or government that was established by the 5th Dalai Lama with the help of the Güshi Khan of the Khoshut in 1642. It lasted until the 1950s, when Tibet was incorporated into the People’s Republic of China, although it was under administrative rule of the Manchu Qing dynasty between 1720 and 1912.
The town of Derge is famous for its three-storey printing house, built in 1729, where Buddhist scriptures are still printed from wooden blocks.It was established during the reign of Derge king Tenpa Tsering. Derge has produced artists such as the Situ Panchen and the 8th Tai Situpa who was a renowned Buddhist master who helped revive Tibetan culture and language, and aided King Tenpa Tsering in setting up the Derge Parkhang or Derge printing house. The printing house, run by monks, continues to use its ancient techniques, utilizing no electricity. For example, the roof is still used to dry the printed sheets.
Kham and Amdo
Outside of TAR but still part of Tibet
in Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region was the chief residence of the Dalai Lama until the 14th Dalai Lama fled to India during the 1959 Tibetan uprising. It is now a museum and World Heritage Site.
fifth dalai lama
was the fifth Dalai Lama: a key religious and temporal leader of Tibet who lived from 1617 to 1682. Gyatso is credited with unifying central Tibet after a protracted era of civil wars. As an independent head of state, he established diplomatic relations with China and also met with early European explorers
patron priest relationship
The relationship between Tibet and the Mongols was a unique priest-patron relationship known as cho-yon. Tibet received protection from the Buddhist Mongol emperors in return for spiritual guidance from the ruling lamas of Tibet. The relationship involves a reciprocal legitimation of authority.
Lhamo Latso, oracle lake
is a small oval oracle lake is where senior Tibetan monks of the Gelugsect go for visions to assist in the discovery of reincarnations of the Dalai Lamas. Other pilgrims also come to seek visions. It is considered to be the most sacred lake in Tibet
was a period in the history of Tibet when the region was structurally, militarily and administratively controlled by the Yuan dynasty, a division of the Mongol Empire. The Mongol rule over Tibet was established after Sakya Pandita capitulated Tibet in 1244 to the Mongols, following the 1240 Mongol conquest of Tibet led by the tarkhan Doorda. It is also called theSakya dynasty after the favored Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism.
third dalai lama (sonam gyatso)
(1543-1588) was the first to be created Dalai Lama, although the title was retrospectively given to his two predecessors.
He was born near Lhasa in 1543 and was recognised as the reincarnation of Gendun Gyatso and subsequently enthroned at Drepung Monastery by Panchen Sonam Dragpa, who became his tutor. Panchen Sonam Dragpa was the 15th Ganden Tripa and his texts still serve as the core curriculum for many Gelugpa monasteries. The third Dalai Lama studied at Drepung Monastery and became its abbot. His reputation spread quickly and the monks at Sera Monastery also recognised him as their abbot.
a very old religion, the ancient religion of Tibet. People used to believe in a blend of bon and Buddhism. They stressed a relationship to nature
1582 – 14 January 1655), was a Khoshut prince and leader of theKhoshut Khanate, who supplanted the Tümed descendants of Altan Khan as the main benefactor of the Dalai Lama and the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism. In 1637, Güshi Khan defeated a rival Mongolian prince Tsogtu Khung Tayiji, a Kagyu follower, near Qinghai Lake (Kokonor) and established his khanate in Tibet over the next years. His military assistance to the Gelug school enabled the 5th Dalai Lama to establish political control overTibet.
year 1642: importance
From about 1562 Tibet has been controlled by a self-made dynasty of kings, the Gtsang-pa. In 1642 a Mongol army removes them, and the khan presents the country to the Dalai Lama as a spiritual gift. The abbot is to rule it with Mongol military support.